Tuesday, March 4, 2014

Haplogroups for Humans (Summary)

Posted for educational purposes only. 
Introduction
Haplogroup R is a widespread and diverse branch of the Y-chromosomes tree that is extremely common in Europe, where it spread after the end of the Ice Age about 12,000 years ago. The haplogroup appears to have originated in southwestern Asia about 30,000 years ago. It then split into two main branches. R1 ultimately spread widely across Eurasia, from Iceland to Japan, whereas R2 mostly remained near its region of origin. Today it can be found in southwestern Asia and India.
Because of recent immigration, both branches of R are now found worldwide among men of European, Middle Eastern and South Asian descent – though our haplogroup maps indicate only their pre-colonial distributions, do keep in mind that these do not have information which was discovered after their printing. Since that time Haplogroup R has been found in Egypt in a very high percentage of the Royal mummies tested while only showing up in a mere 1% of the regular populace. This has been the case for royals as well in China in the 'secret mummies' and what is today the United States. For the results of this were not believed so it was done again, and still not believed so once more and it is conclusive. Tut was western European and this same Haplogroup is found on other continents. . 
Haplogroup R1
R1 is the dominant haplogroup in Europe today, accounting for well over half of all men. After being confined to the continent's southern fringes during the Ice Age, it expanded rapidly in the wake of the receding glaciers about 12,000 years ago. Various branches of R1 also trace the many migrations that have shaped Europe since then, from the arrival of farmers between about 10,000 and 7,000 years ago to the movements of ethnic groups such as the Anglo-Saxons and Vikings.
Haplogroup R1b
Haplogroup R1b was confined during the Ice Age to pockets of the area of today's Mediterranean Europe. The largest is thought based on current info to be in the Iberian peninsula and southern France, where men bearing the haplogroup created the famous cave paintings at Lascaux and Altamira. They also hunted mammoth, bison and other large game in a climate that was more like present-day Siberia's than the mild conditions prevailing in southern Europe today.
Some men bearing R1b Y-chromosomes also seem to have spent the Ice Age in the Balkans and Anatolia, where the haplogroup is still present today.
After the Ice Age, the haplogroup expanded rapidly in the wake of the retreating glaciers. Today R1b is by far the most common haplogroup in the western half of the continent.
Haplogroup R1b1b2
R1b1b2 is the most common haplogroup in western Europe, where it is found in more than 50% of men. Ancient representatives of the haplogroup were among the first people to repopulate the western part of Europe after the Ice Age ended about 12,000 years ago. In the process the haplogroup differentiated into even more distinct groups that can trace the details of the post-Ice Age migrations.
Haplogroup R1b1b2a1a2b
R1b1b2a1a2b arose about 20,000 years ago, when the Ice Age was at its peak. It appears to have originated among the ancestors of the present-day Basque, because of the relatively high diversity of the haplogroups in that population compared to neighboring ones. Today R1b1b2a1a2b is found in about 5% of Basque and 1% of Iberians.
Haplogroup R1b1b2a1a2f2
R1b1b2a1a2f2 reaches its peak in Ireland, where the vast majority of men carry Y-chromosomes belonging to the haplogroup. Researchers have recently discovered that a large subset of men assigned to the haplogroup may be direct male descendants of an Irish king who ruled during the 4th and early 5th centuries. According to Irish history, a king named Niall of the Nine Hostages established the Ui Neill dynasty that ruled the island country for the next millennium.
Northwestern Ireland is said to have been the core of Niall's kingdom; and that is exactly where men bearing the genetic signature associated with him are most common. About 17% of men in northwestern Ireland have Y-chromosomes that are exact matches to the signature, and another few percent vary from it only slightly. In New York City, a magnet for Irish immigrants during the 19th and early 20th century, 2% of men have Y-chromosomes matching the Ui Neill signature. Genetic analysis suggests that all these men share a common ancestor who lived about 1,700 years ago. Among men living in northwestern Ireland today that date is closer to 1,000 years ago. Those dates neatly bracket the era when Niall is supposed to have reigned.
Outside Ireland, R1b1b2a1a2f2 is relatively common only along the west coast of Britain.
Haplogroup R1b1b2a1a1
Today R1b1b2a1a1 is found mostly on the fringes of the North Sea in England, Germany and the Netherlands, where it reaches levels of one-third. That distribution suggests that some of the first men to bear the haplogroup in their Y-chromosomes were residents of Doggerland, a real-life Atlantis that was swallowed up by rising seas in the millennia following the Ice Age. Another theory supposes that the shore for some distance, perhaps covering many miles out to sea was not actually shore but ice shelf! This theory proposes they sailed around the coast of ice shelf occasionally making settlement stops and cache spots for drops along their exploring. 
Doggerland was a low-lying region of forests and wetlands that may have been ice at one time which was melting off at a accelerated pace. It must have been rich in game; today, fishing trawlers in the North Sea occasionally dredge up the bones and tusks of the mastodons that roamed there. It is believed by experts that many huge mammals such as mastadons and more  would get stuck in the swampy areas becoming lodged in making them easy prey!  

Doggerland had its heyday between about 12,000 years ago, when the Ice Age climate began to ameliorate, and 9,000 years ago, when the meltwaters of the gradually retreating glaciers caused sea levels to rise, drowning the hunter's paradise. Doggerland's inhabitants retreated to the higher ground that is now the North Sea coast.

P.2) The Paternal haplogroups are families of Y chromosomes that all trace back to a single mutation at a specific place and time. By looking at the geographic distribution of these related lineages, we learn how our ancient male ancestors migrated throughout the world. Note this is not as in depth as a true study would be but interesting none the less. 
  • Haplogroup: B, a subgroup of the PoP
  • Age: more than 75,000 years
  • Region: Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Example Populations: Baka, Mbenzele, Mbuti (Pygmies), Hadza, San
  • Highlight: Haplogroup B is commonly found among hunter-gatherer groups in the central African rain forest, eastern Africa, and southern Africa. Chris Rock is this Haplogroup

  • Haplogroup: C3, a subgroup of C
  • Age: less than 50,000 years
  • Region: Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Americas
  • Example Populations: Oroqen, Mongolians, Sioux
  • Highlight: C3 is one of only two haplogroups that originally settled the Americas. Genghis Khan is of this Haplogroup based on current DNA studies. 

  • Haplogroup: D2, a subgroup of D
  • Age: 20,000 years
  • Region: Eastern Asia, Southern Asia
  • Example Populations: Ainu, Okinawan
  • Highlight: Haplogroup D2 is almost exclusively found in Japan.

  • Haplogroup: E, a subgroup of D/E
  • Age: 30,000 years
  • Region: Africa, Europe, Near East
  • Example Populations: Bantu-speakers, African Americans, Berbers, Bantu-speakers
  • Highlight: Haplogroup E is the major western African haplogroup but is common across the Near East and southern Europe as well.

  • Haplogroup: E1b1a, a subgroup of E
  • Age: 20,000 years
  • Region: Africa
  • Example Populations: Bantu-speakers, African Americans
  • Highlight: E1b1a is the most common Y-chromosome haplogroup among African-American men.  Guess for an example of a Nigerian famous person of this Haplogroup

  • Haplogroup: E1b1a, a subgroup of E
  • Age: 20,000 years
  • Region: Africa
  • Example Populations: Bantu-speakers, African Americans
  • Highlight: E1b1a is the most common Y-chromosome haplogroup among African-American men.
Desmond Tutu is of this Haplogroup

  • Haplogroup: E1b1b1c, a subgroup of E1b1b
  • Age: more than 15,000 years
  • Region: Near East, northeastern Africa, southern Europe
  • Example Populations: Ethiopians, Jordanians, Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews
  • Highlight: Most people who bear E1b1b1c trace their roots to the Near East about 15,000 years ago.
  • Napoleon was of this Haplogroup

  • Haplogroup: G, a subgroup of F
  • Age: 16,000 years
  • Region: Central Asia, Near East, Northern Africa, Europe
  • Example Populations: Palestinians, Ossetians, Georgians, Moroccans
  • Highlight: Haplogroup G probably originated in the Caucasus but made its way across the Near East, northern Africa, southern Europe, and even into China.
King Louis XVI was of the Haplogroup G2a3b1a

  • Haplogroup: I1, a subgroup of I
  • Age: 28,000 years
  • Region: Northern Europe
  • Example Populations: Finns, Norwegians, Swedes
  • Highlight: Haplogroup I1 reaches highest frequencies in Scandinavia. 
  • Warren and Jimmy Buffet both are of this Haplogroup

  • Haplogroup: J, a subgroup of F
  • Age: 20,000 years
  • Region: Southern Europe, Near East, Northern Africa
  • Example Populations: Bedouins, Ashkenazi Jews, Greeks
  • Highlight: Haplogroup J was carried out of the Near East by Muslims and Jews during the first millennium AD.
  • Matt Lauer is of this Haplogroup

  • Haplogroup: J2, a subgroup of J
  • Age: 18,000 years
  • Region: Southern Europe, Near East, Northern Africa
  • Example Populations: Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardic Jews, Lebanese
  • Highlight: Haplogroup J2 is found in nearly one-quarter of Sephardic Jewish men.
  • Dr. Oz is of this Haplogroup

  • Haplogroup: O1, a subgroup of O
  • Age: 30,000 years
  • Region: Eastern Asia
  • Example Populations: Han Chinese, Indigenous Taiwanese
  • Highlight: O1 is exceptionally common among indigenous Taiwanese.
Yo Yo Ma is of this Haplogroup

  • Haplogroup: R1, a subgroup of R
  • Age: 15,000 to 30,000 years
  • Region: Europe, Western Asia
  • Example Populations: Basques, Britons, Irish, Germans
  • Highlight: R1 is the dominant haplogroup in Europe today.
  • Anderson Cooper is of this Haplogroup

  • Haplogroup: R1b, a subgroup of R1
  • Age: less than 30,000 years
  • Region: Western Europe
  • Example Populations: Irish, British, Dutch, Germans
  • Highlight: Haplogroup R1b expanded across most of Europe after the Ice Age.

  • Haplogroup: R1b1, a subgroup of R1b
  • Age: less than 30,000 years
  • Region: Western Europe
  • Example Populations: Basques, British, Dutch, Germans
  • Highlight: R1b1 was confined to Iberia and southern France during the Ice Age.


  • Haplogroup: R1b1b2, a subgroup of R1b1
  • Age: 17,000 years
  • Region: Europe
  • Example Populations: Irish, Basques, British, French
  • Highlight: R1b1b2 is the most common haplogroup in western Europe, with distinct branches in specific regions.
  • Stephen Colbert is this Haplogroup

  • Haplogroup: R1b1, a subgroup of R1b
  • Age: less than 30,000 years
  • Region: Western Europe
  • Example Populations: Basques, British, Dutch, Germans
  • Highlight: R1b1 was confined to Iberia and southern France during the Ice Age.
  • Pres. William McKinley and Woodrow Wilson were this Haplogroup


  • Haplogroup: T, a subgroup of F
  • Age: 21,000 years
  • Region: Europe, Near East, Northern Africa
  • Example Populations: Iraqis, Ethiopians, Egyptians
  • Highlight: T can be found across much of the Near East and Europe, although typically at low frequencies.
  • Thomas Jefferson was this Haplogroup

P3)
Maternal haplogroups are families of mitochondrial DNA types that all trace back to a single mutation at a specific place and time. By looking at the geographic distribution of mtDNA types, we learn how our ancient female ancestors migrated throughout the world.
  • Haplogroup: A, a subgroup of N
  • Age: greater than 50,000 years
  • Region: Americas, Siberia, East Asia
  • Example Populations: Native Americans, Siberians
  • Highlight: Mitochondrial DNA from haplogroup A was extracted from the "Ice Maiden," the mummified remains of a teenage Inca girl who died about 500 years ago.

  • Haplogroup: C, a subgroup of M
  • Age: greater than 50,000 years
  • Region: Americas, Asia
  • Example Populations: Native Americans, Evenks, Altai-Kizhi
  • Highlight: Haplogroup C was one of four major haplogroups involved in the peopling of North America.

  • Haplogroup: D, a subgroup of M
  • Age: 45,000 years
  • Region: Americas, Asia
  • Example Populations: Native Americans, Yupik, Chukchi
  • Highlight: People carrying mitochondrial DNA from haplogroup D may have been among the first to reach the tip of South America.

  • Haplogroup: H, a subgroup of R0
  • Age: more than 40,000 years
  • Region: Europe, Near East, Central Asia
  • Example Populations: Basques, Scandinavians
  • Highlight: Mitochondrial DNA extracted from the remains of St. Luke belonged to haplogroup H.

  • Haplogroup: J1, a subgroup of J
  • Age: more than 38,000 years
  • Region: Europe, Near East
  • Example Populations: British, Scandinavians
  • Highlight: J1 spread from the Middle East all the way to Iceland.

  • Haplogroup: K, a subgroup of R
  • Age: 35,000 years
  • Region: Near East, Europe, Central Asia, Northern Africa
  • Example Populations: Ashkenazi, Druze, Kurds
  • Highlight: One branch of haplogroup K ties about 1.7 million Ashkenazi Jews living today to a single maternal ancestor.

  • Haplogroup: L3e, a subgroup of L3
  • Age: 45,000 years
  • Region: Africa
  • Example Populations: Bantu-speakers, African Americans
  • Highlight: The maternal lines of African Americans bearing the L3e1 branch of L3e likely trace to present-day Mozambique.

  • Haplogroup: L3f, a subgroup of L3
  • Age: less than 50,000 years
  • Region: Northern, Eastern, Coastal Western Africa
  • Example Populations: Yoruba, Fulbe, African Americans
  • Highlight: Haplogroup L3f is widely distributed across the Sahel belt of Africa.

  • Haplogroup: M8a, a subgroup of M
  • Age: greater than 18,000 years
  • Region: Central and Eastern Asia
  • Example Populations: Koreans, Uyghurs, Siberians
  • Highlight: Haplogroup M8a originated in Siberia during the coldest period of the Ice Age.

  • Haplogroup: V, a subgroup of R0
  • Age: 16,000 years
  • Region: Europe
  • Example Populations: Finns, Saami (Lapps), Sardinians, Basques
  • Highlight: Haplogroup V was probably common in Doggerland, an ancient land now drowned beneath the North Sea.

Haplogroup X a sudden new group found in Native American Indians. This new Haplogroup has caused quite a stir as it is a Eurasian type DNA and not found in Siberia as many 'experts' want to insist. Hap x proves as does Haplogroup X2A found in Navajo, and more like Sue and Hopi as well as Hopewell descendants. Linked to Clovis point, and hunters over 17,000 years ago and also found in Norway, Sweeden and more. So how did X get there? This group popped up suddenly in 1998 and sems to indicate this came to the USA shores by the Atlantic not through the Bearing straights

See more on recent studies here: Out of Africa theory challenged

Ancient Humans Bred with an unknown species

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